73rd Day Of Lockdown

Maharashtra77793336812710 Tamil Nadu2725614901223 Delhi250049898659 Gujarat18609126671155 Rajasthan98627104213 Uttar Pradesh92375439245 Madhya Pradesh87622772377 West Bengal68762768355 Bihar4452212028 Karnataka4320161057 Andhra Pradesh4112252971 Haryana3281112324 Telangana31471587105 Jammu and Kashmir3142104835 Odisha247814819 Punjab2415204347 Assam19894434 Kerala158969015 Uttarakhand115328610 Jharkhand7642975 Chhatisgarh6781892 Tripura6221730 Himachal Pradesh3691636 Chandigarh3022225 Goa126570 Manipur124110 Puducherry90330 Nagaland8000 Arunachal Pradesh3710 Meghalaya33131 Mizoram1710 Sikkim200
Lifestyle Culture and Society 18 Apr 2019 Increase in female m ...

Increase in female managers does not guarantee equal pay as men

Published Apr 18, 2019, 8:46 pm IST
Updated Apr 18, 2019, 8:46 pm IST
The ratio of female managers does not result in higher pay for women in organisations: Study.
The study discovered that women in management positions do not appear to make a substantial contribution to gender equality in earnings in organisations. (Photo: Representational/Pexels)
 The study discovered that women in management positions do not appear to make a substantial contribution to gender equality in earnings in organisations. (Photo: Representational/Pexels)

Washington: In a new study, researchers have established that neither the ratio of female managers nor the gender of workers' individual manager, affect the earning of workers in an organisation. The study was published in the European Sociological Review.

"There are very good reasons to believe women should benefit from having a female manager, so we were surprised to find that this is not the case. I believe the next step is to dig deeper into the mechanisms of how this occurs," said the paper's lead author, Margriet van Hek.


The past decades have seen a steady increase in women's representation in all levels of management. Women's access to management has been the subject of many studies, which have led to insights on how gender inequality in access to power is established.

Now that women increasingly occupy managerial positions, the question arises what the implications of the growing number of women in these positions might be. Managers play a key role in organisations and decide on the hiring, wages, promotions and training of employees.

As such, a change in the demographic representation of managers may affect inequalities among employees. Many studies have investigated explanations for the gender gap in earnings, but only a small proportion has concentrated on the influence of women's representation in management.

There are reasons to expect that the female manager may lack the power or do not have the motivation to enhance the earnings of other women. Female managers may not have sufficient power to significantly influence the earnings of other women in the organisation. Female managers may often be stuck at lower levels of management, where they do not have enough power to substantially affect the careers of employees.

Researchers investigated whether female managers contribute to greater gender equality in organisations. Specifically, they examined the impact of the share of female managers in an organisation and the influence of direct supervision by a female manager.

The researchers used manager-employee linked data from nine European countries to test these hypotheses. The employees studied worked in manufacturing, healthcare, higher education, transportation, financial services and telecommunication sectors.

The results indicated a considerable variation of inequality between women's and men's earnings between departments and organisations. Nevertheless, despite the widespread presence of women in organisations there exists a considerable and significant gender gap in earnings.

Women in the sample earn on average 7 per cent less than men, regardless of the gender of their direct supervisor and regardless of the share of female managers in the organisation. Considering a 40-hour workweek, the gender gap in earnings is about EUR 104 per month (the equivalent of almost USD 118). This figure is only adjusted for working hours and not for the sector, country, educational attainment, job status and other organisational or individual characteristics.

Women in management positions do not appear to make a substantial contribution to gender equality in earnings in organisations. While other studies, however, have demonstrated that organisational culture and policies greatly influence the motivation and opportunities of female managers to contribute to gender equality in organisations, these results show that women's and men's earnings are not affected by the share of female managers in their organisation.