Like many teenagers, 19-year-old Negin Khpalwak from Kunar in eastern Afghanistan loves music, but few people of her age have battled as fiercely to pursue their passion in the face of family hostility and threats.
Playing instruments was banned outright during the period of Taliban rule in Afghanistan, and even today, many conservative Muslims frown on most forms of music. Negin took her first steps learning music in secret, before eventually revealing her activity to her father. He encouraged her, but the reaction from the rest of her conservative Pashtun family was hostile.
"Apart from my father, everybody in the family is against it," she said. "They say, 'How can a Pashtun girl play music?' Especially in our tribe, where even a man doesn't have the right to do it." Now living in an orphanage in the Afghan capital of Kabul, Negin leads the Zohra orchestra, an ensemble of 35 women at the Afghanistan National Institute for Music that plays both Western and Afghan musical instruments.
When she went home on a recent visit, her uncles and brothers threatened to beat her for a performing appearance on television, and she had to return to Kabul the next day. "Compared to women outside Afghanistan, we feel we are in a cage," she said.
In a country notorious internationally for harsh restrictions on women in most areas of life, Negin's story highlights a double challenge. "The formation of the orchestra is an achievement in itself," said Ahmad Naser Sarmast, a musicologist who returned home from Australia after the fall of the Taliban to help found the National Institute for Music in 2010.
I will never accept defeat
While children at the school have the support of their parents, they often face pressure from their wider family as well as from religious authorities, he said.
"The bravery of the girls sitting in the orchestra and the leadership of a young female conductor is an achievement for Afghanistan," he said. Some of the women say their relatives are proud of their achievements, but they face suspicion from others, as well as intimidation.
"When I have my musical instruments with me, people talk a lot behind my back," said Mina, a trumpeter in the orchestra, whose mother is a policewoman in the eastern city of Jalalabad. "There are a lot of security problems, and if we go from one place to another with our instruments, then we have to go by car," she added.
The dangers awaiting performers in Afghanistan were brutally highlighted in 2014, when Sarmast was nearly killed by a suicide bomber who blew himself up during a show at a French-run school in Kabul.
He has not been discouraged, however. The formation of the girls' orchestra was the best response to extremists, he said, adding that the school was trying to help Negin continue her education, despite the family problems.
Negin remains fiercely determined to continue on a path that has given her a new sense of identity. "I am not that Negin anymore," she said. "I have been leading this orchestra for six months now, and leadership takes a lot of effort."
She is ready to leave her family behind for the sake of her music, she said, although, in Afghanistan, family is crucial to most people's sense of their position in the world. "I will never accept defeat," she said. "I will continue to play music. I do not feel safe, but when people see me and say, 'That is Negin Khpalwak', that gives me energy."...